Monday, January 30, 2006

Peoples again

With the addition of th 15th century and mid-20th century, I have a few more historical tools for examining different peoples. The beginning development of particular changes, Abrahamic religion, and particular families; Performing arts and philosphy; and more areas of Anthropology also are elaso extending the bag of techniques.

An outline for the history of Western civilization is starting to come together without quite so many serious gaps. North American Anglic peoples how have an introductory entry. I've also added Southern Africa and Central Africa, and South American Indians and North American Indians, which gives a complete set of the major areas of the world.

Friday, January 27, 2006

Sociology revisited

This is such an abstract, high-level topic that it's difficult to outline its history in meaningful terms. I can make more progress by preparing for more detailed Institutional analysis that includes such things Abrahamic religion and particular families. Cultural analysis includes Performing arts and philosophy, and Anthropological analysis will include such things as particular groups, physical anthropology, and human ecology.


As part of my studies of history, I am looking for trends that will help in examining the future. I can do a little extrapolation from existing events into the near future; longer range events are increasingly speculative. The starting point is the present, which I am grouping with the late 20th century. I've grouped this into the next 100 years, next thousand years, and the far future, as broad, general categories.

Modern History

Most of what I can say about this subject is pretty much the same as for history in general, but more specific details are in the current round of development. The 16th century, the 17th century, the 18th century, and the 19th century all need more specific details before I can discuss them in any but the most general terms.

I've extended the 20th century a little further back. The Mid 20th century (1941-1960) includes most of World War II, a major event in world history, and the beginnings of the Cold War. I have broadened the connections of the late-mid 20th century (1961-1980) and the late 20th century (1981-present), but don't have enough detail to report on them yet.

Thursday, January 26, 2006

Classical and Medieval History

This subject now includes all of its principal subdivisions, but the limited development of them makes generalization difficult. It is evident that the principal focus shifts to Western civilization away from Asiatic peoples, which predominated in antiquity. Abrahamic religion and particular families can be noted as important subtopics, and many of the performing arts and much of philosophy originated in this period. I also note that the Abbadid dynasty, noted in particular groups and history, belongs to this period.

Early classical history and late classical history do not yet have much interesting detail, and early medieval history is not much better. I have begun to subdivide the late medieval period by century, starting with the 15th century, but have no detail for it yet. Otherwise, it chiefly follows the same patterns as classical and medieval history in general.

History revisited

The addition of new subjects allows better insight into world history. Western Civilization is now filled out with the inclusion of Balkan and Scandinavian peoples, while Asiatic peoples are now filled out with the inclusion of Central Asian peoples. Africa has only begin with Eastern and Western Africa, and American Indians have only begun with Meso-America. Particular cities are not yet to the level where I can connect them yet, and specific social changes also not yet to the level where I can name them. Addition of Abrahamic religion brings in a major topic to history, and the category of particular families will also be useful. The role of the performing arts and philosophy in history can also be considered. The use of particular groups, such as the Abbadid dynasty, gives detail to history. Physical anthropology and human ecology are also somewhat useful. Personal studies haven't yet reached this point, and psychology is at too low a level to be really useful to history. Biology is also hard to related directly to history.

Study of Prehistory (up to 3000 BC) will definitely be aided by considering Asiatic peoples, which can be traced back at least this far, and the major institutions can also be traced back, although not in the detail I would like. Evidence for performing arts and philosophy is scanty compared to later periods. So far, I have no specific particular groups, although physical anthropology and human ecology form a large part of studies of prehistory, and this tends to merge with parts of biology.

Studies of Antiquity (3000 BC - 500 BC) are brought into much better focus by including Central Asia and Balkan peoples. Particular changes are possible, and the recognized origins of Abrahamic religion begin in antiquity. I am not aware of major developments in Performing arts or philosophy during this period, although they presumably existed. So far, I have no specificl particular groups, but physical anthropology and human ecology can also be connected.


Culture is still too high-level and general a topic to work with easily. I don't yet have a good idea of its history, although a broad overview of world's cultures is possible. Connections to each of the social institutions can also be made.

Behavioral culture isn't very specialized yet. I have begun linking Events to other major areas and have added a "Performing arts" heading.

Under Conceptual culture, I have added a
"Philosophy" heading. Under Material culture, I don't yet have enough detail.

Anthropology is linked to various subjects at a high level, but doesn't have much detail yet. In particular groups, I haven't found a well-organized listing of the few most important ones, so what I've decided is to go to the Encyclopedia Britannica and reorganized them from alphabetic order. The first one on the list is the Abbadid Dynasty, of medieval (Islamic) Spain. I've also added headings for "Physical anthropology" and "Human Ecology". Since I include the content of social or cultural anthropology, which deals with whole societies, under the heading of sociology, it's not absolutely clear which section should get which title. Human ecology deals with the relationships between humankind and the rest of nature.

Personal studies now include a new heading of "Psychology", and Science includes a new heading of "Biology" in the current version of the knowledge base, which should absorb the older versions as I develop it.

Wednesday, January 25, 2006


Since the social institutions aren't a well-unified subject, the history of the subject has to be reconstructed from individual areas. The origins in prehistory, developments in antiquity, and in classical and medieval times can be difficult to follow. What is clear is that in modern times, they have become more complex and more formalized than they were before. Comparative studies, using the institutions of different societies, examples from particular cities, and the tools of social structure and change will clarify these areas. I've discussed the major divisions of religion, government, economics, education, and families before. This time, the connections to particular areas of culture will be more useful.

I want to elevate the importance of religion. I have only the sketchiest outline of religious history, and a somewhat better idea of how it is distributed among peoples. The major divisions of particular religion, religious organization, practice, and beliefs are all being studied. This and has been fairl closely connected to government. It is hardly possible to discuss religion in general without looking at particular traditions, and their organization, practice, and beliefs. The economics of religion is not often discussed. Education and the roles of families are also important, and roots in culture will also need to be considered.

The first catetory of particular traditions is what I call Abrahamic religion, and including this will give substance to several other areas of study. Discussion of religious organization, practice, and beliefs will have to be postponed.

Government can benefit from historical and comparative studies, though I don't yet have details. It depends more on religion than is often realized, but discussion of particular governments, government structure, activity, and law will have to be examined later. It is closely tied to economics, somewhat to education, and some to families.

Economics can also benefit from historical and comparative studies. It is somewhat connected to religion, but more importantly to government. I haven't yet reached analysis of particular companies, but economic systems are beginning.

Education likewise can benefit from historical and comparative studies, and is also connected to religion, government, and economics. I haven't yet reached analysis of particular schools or school organization, but this will be coming.

Families likewise can benefit from historical and comparative studies, and are influenced by religion, government, economics, and education. I have a category for particular families, but this doesn't have much content yet.


Communities, that is particular cities, would be the next subject in the list, but i'm going to put this off a little until I have specific communities to examine.

Social structure and change is also appropriate, but the applications of other areas doesn't advance the subject much at the current state of development.

Social change ought to be informed by the whole range of human history and particular societies, but I need discussion of particular changes, social types, and structure before I can discuss this in enough detail.

Particular changes is not yet well enough connected to be very useful yet.

Social types are better connected to other areas, but not yet subdivided much.

Social structure is also in the fairly early stages of examination.

Tuesday, January 24, 2006

Non-Western Civilization

Asiatic civilization is a large category witn no real unit. Most of it is known by its particular subdivisions. Most of its prehistory is fairly obscure, but the major areas can all be traced back into antiquity. The classical and medieval history will be described when I have a more complete division of its topics. Its modern history is easier to follow, as it has come in contact with Western peoples.
The principal divisions of Middle East, South Asia, Orient, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia can be each considered in a little more detail. These have to be considered in connection with Anglic, Latin, and Germanic peoples, and to some extent Northeast Europeans. The Balkan peoples are less influential now than they were in classical and medieval times, and Scandinavia has never had a major influence on the asiatic peoples. The connections to African and American Indian peoples are much less important. Again, examination of particular communities, the social institutions, culture, anthropology, personal studies, and science will be postponed until these are better developed.

The Orient is considered here in first place because these are the most populous of the world's peoples, although they have had proportionally less influence on the world.

South Asian peoples are also important within Asia, though a little bit less in the world.

Southeast Asia is comparatively neglected, compared with other Asian peoples, but have to be given nearly equal status here.

The Middle East, because of its central location and proximity to Western peoples, has had more influence in world affairs than its size alone can account for.

Central Asia has had less attention given to it than other areas of the world, and is comparatively poorly known, which makes it more interesting to me.

African Peoples are not as well known as the major Western and Asiatic peoples. Comparatively little of their history is written until modern times, and is more difficult to study. I am so far concerned with Eastern and Western Africa than with other areas. Africa was divided up by the Western colonial powers in the 19th and 20th centuries; principally the Anglic, Latin, and Germanic branches. The Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia have also been connected. American history is virtually negligible in comparison. There are few large cities to prompt rapid development of this subject, so it will be to some extent set aside.

West African people have have not yet had other areas applied to them in enough detail to describe at present.
East African peoples likewise also have not yet had other areas applied to them in enough detail

American Indian peoples are the least well known of any of the major divisions. Their history in antiquity, classical and medieval times is mostly lost, and their modern history has been more or less absorbed by western civilization. I have three principal branches: Meso-America, South America, and North American. These have been dominated and submerged by Western civilization, particularly the Anglic and Latin branches, and have had some African influence, and are difficult to examine because there are no large cities where their influence is predominant. However, other areas can be applied just as for the other major branches of peoples of the world.

Meso-american peoples are the most prominent, but have not yet been examined in full detail.

Western Civilization

Western Civilization is a rather broad and fuzzy term; it generally refers to European peoples and those peoples whose culture is largely derived from European antecedents. I've studied its history to some extent, although I don't claim expertise on all the details. I have divided this roughly into categories of Anglic (English-speaking), Latin, Germanic, Northeast European, Balkan, and Scandinavian peoples. There are connections with the Asiatic peoples, such as the Middle East, India or South Asia, Orient, and Southeast Asia, but it's difficult to generalize until I have examined the relations with each of the individual peoples. There are also connections to African and to Native American peoples. Study of particular cities will help give color and detail to study of Western civilization. Social changes, types, and structure can be applied to analysis of these peoples. The major institutions, culture, anthropology, and biography can be usefully applied when I have more detail on these subjects.

Anglic, or English-speaking peoples is probably not a traditional category, but I find it a useful one. The connections with other areas are similar to those for Western civilization in general, but it's useful to consider also relations to the other Western peoples. These are perhaps better connected to Native American peoples than to African and Asiatic peoples.

Latin peoples are a rather broad category, not yet properly analyzed or considered in the same depth what I have applied to anglic peoples.

Germanic peoples are also a broad category with only a preliminary analysis.

Northeast European peoples are likewise a broad category.

I've reintroduced Balkan peoples and Scandinavian peoples into the latest version of my program so that I now have a fomplete list of the broad categories for Western civilization.

Monday, January 23, 2006


Peoples of the world are a little easier to grasp than the general area called sociology. There isn't enough detail yet in my studies of prehistory and antiquity to identify the most important ones. In the classical and medieval period, As a skeleton I have Roman civilization in the late classical period, Byzantine and early Islamic peoples in the early medieval period, and the late or high medieval period in the west, but my knowledge of corresponding non-Western peoples is rather sketchy. The modern history of the major peoples can be followed century by century, and I also have connections to what I loosely call the Vietnam era (1961-1980) and the end of the Cold War (1981-2006) I have place for the major divisions of Western, Asiatic, African, and Native American peoples. I can give more color and detail to these studies by considering the largest cities of each of these major peoples, although this is still in the early stages. I can also consider the major social changes, types of societies, and structure of society. Each of these can be examined from the point of view of particular religions, particular governments, companies, particular schools, and families. I am also making room for behavioral culture including major events, conceptual and material culture, and Anthropology including particular groups and human geography, personal studies including biographies, and science in general.


I've begun reformulating my approach to the subject, and so far it seems to be working more happily. The study of sociology is closely connected to history, and it is possible to trace a degree of progress from prehistory through antiquity. In this round of studies, I'm adding the late classical period, from 1 CE to 500 CE to studies of the classical and medieval period in sociology, and the 16th century, which will complete a survey of the modern period. In the 20th century, I'm also adding preliminary consideration of the Vietnam Era. I've also prepared this for more detailed consideration of particular religions, particular governments, companies, and particular schools. The areas I call Behavioral culture, including events, conceptual culture, and material culture can also be sketched. Areas of Anthropology including particular groups and human geography, personal studies including biography, and possible direct applications of science may also be useful.

Wednesday, January 18, 2006

Modern History

In Modern history, there are two areas that are more or less active areas of study, the 19th century and the 20th century. The Northern US is the most active area, Western cities, and the Industrial revolution. Mormonism, international governments, companies such as Wal-Mart, higher education, and particular families, ceremonial objects, warfare, philosophical schools and doctrines, particular groups, biography, and science are areas to be be connected. Some of these are included mostly because they need to be studied in the 20th century.

The 19th century is not as active as the 20th. It is likewise concentrated in the Northern US, with western cities and the Industrial revolution. Mormonism began during this period, and national, rather than international government, was important. Companies were important, higher education, and particular families are also areas of possible study. Ceremonial objects, warfare, and philosophical schools and doctrines were also significant. I don't yet have particular groups. Biographies are a little more specific, and I will need special attention to Darwin and Pasteur. Sciences are less directly useful.

In the 20th century, I will be concentrating on the Late-mid 20th century and late 20th century. The Northern US, Western communities, and Industrial revolition are still useful, Mormonism, international government, companies such as Wal-Mart, higher education, and particular families will be needed. Ceremonial objects, warfare, and philosophical schools and doctrines, biography such as Einstein, and sciences will be useful.

The late-mid 20th century (1961-1980) doesn't yet have enough connections to the detail of other areas. For now, I will be calling this the Vietnam War era.

The late 20th century (1981 to Present) includes the early 2000s, since this period isn't yet far enough from the 20th century. I am calling it the ending of the Cold War. This also doesn't heve connections to the detail of other areas.

The Early 2000s (2001 - present)is also a bit longer than other areas and not yet well enough connected to other areas in my notes to have much detail. It is at the leading edge of my historical studies.

Tuesday, January 17, 2006


Once again I'm not certain whether to employ a history-down or science-up approach, and once again I've flip-floppled. So, now it's History.

Rather than attempt to summarize the introduction to history, I am including the connections to important "leading edge" topics which will be useful to history. Not all of the subjects mentioned here are useful in antiquity, or in classical and medieval history, but are examined because they are useful in modern history. However, related subjects will be examined, which will provide clues to which areas will be considered "leading edge" in the next round of studies.
I am working toward my present local region, the Northern United States. This is also tied to Western Cities. I'm also looking at particular changes, especially those associated with the Industrial revolution.
In connection with religion, I'm going to put Mormonism in first place, International governments, particular companies such as Wal-Mart, Higher education, and particular families.
Also at the fringes of historical exploration, there are ritual and ceremonial objects, warfare, and philosophical schools and doctrines. Particular groups will be useful. There are are too many inviduals to summarize here, but thuse represent an imprtant part of historical study. Science is rather less significant to history.

For studies of antiquity, (3000 BC to 500 BC), I need to work back from the 5th century BC, since most of the peoples and cities of modern times don't date that far back. I' will be looking at adoption of agriculture and the spread of civiliation as a major social change. I'll also be looking at Judaism, national governments, economic systems, and secondary education,.

For studies of classical and medieval times, I will want to work back from the 16th century, and at British people to start with, and at western communities and the process of westernization. This connects to Roman Catholicism, national governmnet, economic systems, higher education, and particular families.

Tuesday, January 10, 2006

Science again

Some of the of the human body in scientific study are related to its overall shape and size: We are not well equipped to observe the very large or the very small. Before I can apply psychology, I need to at least expand one of its current areas of study, consciousness. My list of prominent and influential scientists is all too short, but its important to have one as a foundation for other areas, such as social interaction among scientists. I also don't yet have a list of important scientific groups. I haven't studied many of the Indo-European languages for their usefulness in science and need to work on this. I have looked over the collection of scientific literature where I am and at other places, but don't have favorites to recommend yet. For most purposes, I can begin study of literature with the Bible, but it is not very useful for science. I also need to look more closely at drawing, arithmetic, measurement, and philosophical schools and doctrines, scientific expeditions, and means of written communication. Particular famlies, Higher education, companies (such as British Petroleum), international government, and secularism as a religious-philosophical system. Western cities, the United States, and current scientific events (2001-2006) are also areas where should be able to report progress.